The second Pokhran Nuclear Test was conducted after Smiling Buddha in 1974.
Twenty years ago, on 11 May, 1998, India created history by conducting its second set of nuclear tests – Operation Shakti – in the Indian Army’s Pokhran Test Range. India test fired three nuclear bombs — Shakti I, Shakti II, Shakti III on that day. Two days later, on 13 May, 1998 two other nuclear bombs — Shakti IV and Shakti V were detonated.
- India was not a signatory to Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) or the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).
Sanctions after Nuclear test:
- Newer sanctions were imposed by USA and European Union.
- USA demanded five benchmarks as non-proliferation goals to normalise relations:
o Signing the CTBT
o Halting production of fissile material
o Strategic restraint
o Strengthening export control regimes
o Normalisation of relations with Pakistan
These were strongly rejected by India.
India’s Stand on Sanctions
- India refused to sign the CTBT, but declared a moratorium on testing
- Agreed to join the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty negotiations without halting fissile material production
- Reaffirmed minimum deterrent without giving any number of warheads
- Agreed to strengthen export controls.
- Additionally, India declared no-first-use and commitment to disarmament.
Nuclear Doctrine of India
Two key features of India’s nuclear doctrine are:
- A posture of "No First Use": nuclear weapons will only be used in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian Territory or on Indian forces anywhere; and
- Nuclear retaliation to a first strike will be massive and designed to inflict unacceptable damage.